BY: ABHISHEKA (MSIWM013)
The recombinant DNA technology has diversified applications in the field of Medicine, Industries, Agriculture, etc.
1.Medicine: In the field of Medicine recombinant DNA technology is one of the important milestones.
a) Production of vaccines: The RDNA technology is employed to produce vaccines by modifying cells and viruses to produce vaccines like the Influenza vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine, etc. RDNA technique helps scientists to develop vaccines through cloning the gene used for protective antigen protein.
b) Production of human proteins and Hormones: The RDNA technology is used to produce hormones like Insulin, hGH, INF alpha, INF beta, and INF gama, etc. Recombinant DNA technology helped scientists to develop human insulin by using bacteria as a host cell. Now it is even available in the market.
c) Production of HCH: Now a days scientists have developed many growth hormones using rDNA technology, dwarfism is treated with this hormone.
d) Treating infectious diseases: RDNA technology has helped to develop many tests to diagnose diseases like Tuberculosis, Cancer, AIDS, etc. In the diagnosis process, certain pathogens are isolated, identified and then the kits to diagnose are produced when the genome of the specific pathogen is known to kill it or block its pathogenic activity.
e) Production of Interferons: Interferons are virus-induced proteins produced by virus-infected cells. Now, these interferons are produced using rDNA technology. These interferons are used for HCV infection.
f) Diagnosis of diseases: The RDNA technology has provided many tools for doctors to diagnose diseases like food poisoning salmonella, pus-forming staphylococcus, hepatitis virus, and HIV.
2. Agriculture: In the field of Agriculture the rDNA technology plays an important role to improve nutritional value and yield.
- Tomatoes are allowed to ripen on the vine and shelf life of the tomatoes is increased.
- BGH hormone produced through rDNA technology allows cattle to gain weight more rapidly and also to produce meat with lower fat content and produce 10% more milk.
- Crops sprayed with genetically modified bacteria can tolerate mild freezes.
- Organic farmers use Bt toxin to reduce insect damage to crops. This gene for Bt toxin is inserted into various crop plants using rDNA technology.
- Gene for beta carotene is inserted into rice crops through rDNA technology.
- Production of novel plants with high yielding and pest resistant abilities.
- The bacterial genes help in nitrogen fixation can be transferred to cereal crops like wheat, rice, maize, barley, etc.
3. Industry: RDNA technology has numerous industrial applications.
a) Fermentation: The recombinant technology is used to improve strains of microbes which play important role in fermentation.
b) Production of chemical compounds and enzymes which are commercially and industrially important.
c) Developing more efficient strains of microorganisms.
a) Gene therapy: This RDNA technology helps scientists to replace the defective genes in the genome of the organism. It helps to treat genetic diseases by replacing defective genes in place by normal genes.
b) Creating transgenic animal: Gene of our interest is manipulated and prepared in the laboratory, then transgene is inserted into the selected cattle. Then the transgenic animals are produced.
Example: Transgenic cattle, transgenic chicken, Dolion, Lozebra.
c) Production of monoclonal antibodies and genetically modified plants and animals.
d) Bioremediation: Production of genetically modified bacteria to promote bioremediation.
The use of RDNA technology in the present era is one of the important major advancements in the world.