In the field of enzyme technology, immobilization is now a well-developed process. The effectiveness of a few industrial plants has been demonstrated. In cell immobilization technology the most important factor is that the enzymes are active and stable for a long time. It keeps within the cellular domain and all parts of the cell whether the cells are dead or active but in a state of rest. The mechanisms for all cellular degradation are similar to those described for enzyme degradation e.g. adsorption, covalent bonding, cell to cell cross-linking, encapsulation, and entrapment in a polymeric network. As long-term extraction of cells from a pre-made agent has been made, for example the use of wood as a carrier of Acetobacter has been used for the production of vinegar since 1823. The pre-selected carrier of the selected items is used. It attaches the cell to the surface of the pre-selected carrier made by binding.

Methods of Enzyme Immobilization

There are five different ways to reduce the strength of enzymes: (i) adsorption, (ii) covalent bonding, (iii) Entrapment (iv) copolymerisation and (v) Encapsulation


 If the enzyme does not work in the body externally, the size of the network particles must be very small in order to obtain a binding area for binding. Due to the reduction of enzymes on the outer surface, no pore circulation limitations are met. In addition, the inactive enzyme in the internal body is protected from damage, unstable mass solutions and bacterial attacks, and can achieve a stable and effective enzyme system. In addition, in reducing the internal pore the size of the pore of carriers can be adjusted for internal defects There are four mechanisms for degradation by adsorption: (i) static process (the enzyme is blocked by the carrier by allowing the enzyme-containing solution to affect the carrier without displacement (ii) a powerful batch process (the carrier is immersed in an enzyme solution and mixed by continuous stirring or stirring in the shaker), (iii) the reactor loading process (the carrier is inserted into a reactor for later processing, and the enzyme solution is transferred to the reactor and the carrier is loaded locally. potentially complex network company solution with the enzyme), and (iv) electrode stabilization process (carrier is placed close to one of the electrodes in the enzyme tuber, currently inserted, the enzyme moves to the carrier and is placed on top).

Covalent binding

Covalent bond is formed between the chemical groups of the enzyme and the chemical groups above the carrier. Covalent compounds are used under a wide range of pH, ionic forces and other flexible conditions. Measures of inhibition of attachment of the binding agency followed by the activation process, or attachment of the active group and ultimately enzyme attachment. The different methods of bonding are: (i) diazoation (bonding between an amino support group e.g. between an amino or carboxyl support group and an amino or carboxy enzyme group), (iii) group formation (use of cyanogen bromide is based on glycol-containing compounds i.e. cellulose, syphadex, sepharose, etc.), and (iv) poly active reagents (use of active or multi-functional reagent e.g. glutaraldehyde that forms the interaction between the helper amino group and the amino group of the enzyme) .An major problem with coexistence is that the enzyme may not work by bringing about changes in cohesion when dealing with reactions to active sites. However, this problem can be overcome by using inactivation in the presence of an enzyme or competitor inhibitor or protease. The most effective polymers are these celluloses or polyacrylamides which include diazo, carbodimide or azide groups.

Enzymes can be physically absorbed within the matrix (support) of a water-soluble polymer such as polyacrylamide gels and naturally occurring gels e.g. cellulose triacetate, agar, gelatin, carrageenan, alginate, etc. The type and nature of the matrix varies. The pore size of the matrix should be adjusted to prevent enzyme loss from the matrix due to overgrowth. There is a possibility of leakage of low-weight enzymes from the gel. Agar and carrageenan have large pore sizes (<10m). There are several mechanisms for the binding of enzymes: (i) gluing (gel-enzyme), (ii) stringing (fiber-coated enzyme), and (iii) microcapsule (-enzyme embedded in microcapsules forming monomer compounds (polyamine and polybasic chloride, polyphenol and polyisocyanate). Enzyme binding has been widely used to detect use, but no significant success has been achieved with the industrial process.


The short-term bond is characterized by a cohesive interaction between various enzyme molecules using a reagent acting as glutaraldehyde, a diazonium salt. Reduction in the use of active reagents that can release enzymes. This method is cheap and easy but is rarely used with pure protein because it produces very little of the enzyme that is not able to do the most internal work. It is widely used in trade preparation.


Encapsulation is the closure of a drop of the enzyme solution in an unmeasured membrane capsule. The capsule is composed of cellulose nitrate and nylon. The insertion method is cheap and simple but its effectiveness depends on the stability of the enzyme even though the catalyst is well stored inside the capsule. This method is restricted to medical science only. In this way a large amount of the enzyme cannot work but the worst is that only a small substrate molecule with a strong membrane is used.

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