BIOCHIPS

BY: SREE LAKSHMI (MSIWM012)

Biochip development began with the first work of sensory technology. An American company called Affymetrix developed the first biochip, called Gene chip, which contains a large number of DNA sensors used to detect errors. Biochip is a small laboratory version, which uses more than hundreds of simultaneous chemical reactions. They are specially designed to work in the natural environment, especially within living organisms. It is not an electronic device. Biochips contain millions of biosensors, which act as a micro reactor used to detect certain analytics such as enzymes, proteins, biological molecules, and antibodies.

Working of the Biochip

Biochip has different processes such as DNA, RNA, protein fragments, etc., represented by a point on a chip. These probes bind the existing targets in the sample to be tested. Due to hybridization a link between the investigations and their purpose is made. Biochip scanners and microarray image analysis software and used for target identification and signal testing. The results are calculated at the mathematical level and interpreted into the biological context.

 Components in a Biochip:

Biochip has two components which includes a transponder and a student.

Transponder:

Biochips contain an inactive transponder which means that these transponders require a small amount of electricity to operate. The transponder contains the following four components.

  • Antenna Coil – It is the smallest base used to send and receive signals from a scanner.
  • Computer microchip –It maintains a unique identification number ranging from 10-15 digits.
  • Tuning capacitor –It is charged with a very small signal sent by the operator.
  • Glass capsule – It is made from materials that are incompatible with soda-lime glass. It is used to hold an antenna coil, capacitor and microchip.

 Student:

It contains a coil called exciter used to create an electromagnetic field (emf) with the help of radio signals. It provides the power needed to start the chip. The receiving coil is there to receive the shipping code backed from the excited chip inserted.

 Three types of Biochips are available: –

DNA Microarray

It contains a large number of tiny DNA dots that are fixed on a solid surface. It is used to calculate speech levels with a large number of genes. Each DNA tag contains probes which is Pico moles of some kind. Typically, a probe-target hybridization is detected and calculated by the detection of a fluorophore which refers to the fluorescent chemical compound that can emit light over a luminous spectrum. It is set to determine the equal amount of nucleic acid series in a target. The new macromolecule arrangement was a macro range about nine X-12 inches and the first machine which is a based animation analysis was unveiled in 1981.

Microfluidic Chip

They are the site of a chemical laboratory. They are used for a wide range of responses such as DNA analysis, molecular biological processes and many other chemical reactions. These chips are quite complex because they contain thousands of substances. These parts are physically designed as a bottom-up full-custom Set, which can be very large staff.

Microarray Protein

These chips are used to track activity and protein synthesis, and to find their performance on a large scale. Its main advantage is that it can be used to track large amounts of protein in the same way. This protein chip has a support surface such as a microtiter plate or beads, nitrocellulose membrane, glass slide. This is automatic, fast, economical, highly sensitive, consumes a small number of samples. The first method of protein chips was introduced in antibody microarrays in scientific literature in 1983. The technology that supports this chip was very easy to develop DNA microarrays, which have become the most widely used microarrays.

Benefits:

Biochips have the following benefits –

  • They are very small in size and strong and fast.
  • It can make thousands of organisms in just seconds.
  • Biochip and help with various diseases.

Disadvantages:

Biochips have the following disorders –

  • They are expensive.
  • They can be repaired inside the human body or without their permission.
  • They can raise major issues of personal privacy.

Applications:

  • The biochip can be used to track any person or animal anywhere in the world.
  • It can be used in various fields such as the BP sensor, the oxygen sensor in the medical field.
  • Biochips can be used to store his medical and financial information.

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