Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation

Submerged fermentation is a type of fermentation in which the microorganisms are suspended in a liquid medium. The liquid medium also contains various other nutrients and growth factors in the necessary proportions in a dissolved or a particulate solids form. The main application of submerged fermentation technique is in the extraction of metabolites (secondary metabolites) … Continue reading Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation


Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in molecular and cellular biology. It is a technique that allows one to study and visualize the cellular structures and dynamics of tissues and organelles, and macromolecular assemblies inside the cell. It was devised in the early twentieth century by various scientists like Köhler, Lehmann, Reichert and others. The … Continue reading FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY


QUIZ ON VACCINE Que 1. Vaccine is prepared by      a. weakened microorganism              b. toxins         c. Surface protein                           d. all of the above Que 2. The term vaccine and vaccination are coined by-          a. Edward jenner                             b. Louis Pasture          c. Robert Koch                                    d. Alexander Fleming Que 3. Vaccine … Continue reading Vaccine


Introduction Inflammation is part of the complex biological reaction of the tissues of the body to harmful stimuli, such as bacteria, damaged cells or irritants, and is a defensive reaction involving immune cells, blood vessels and molecular mediators.  Inflammation has the purpose of removing the initial cause of cell injury, clearing necrotic cells and damaged … Continue reading Inflammation

Research methodology

By- Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan, ( MSIWM043 ) Research methodology: The method of conducting research, by formulating problems, finding objectives, presenting result is all the crucial steps in any research. Sources of data and population consideration, ethical values, sample determination, methods executing plays a vital role before undertaking the research proposal. Objectives Obtaining novel opinions and … Continue reading Research methodology

Corona Virus

QUIZ ON CORONA VIRUS Que 1: Latin word “corona” means         a. Crown                  b. Lethal         c. Spherical             d. Contagious Que 2: Coronavirus belongs to _______ subfamily-         a. Avulavirinae            b. Comovirinae         c. Orthocoronavirinae       d. Parvovirinae Que 3: SARS cov was transmitted from-         a. Civet cats             b. Camels         c. Dogs                      … Continue reading Corona Virus

Agglutination Reactions

Agglutination is defined as the antigen-antibody reaction in which antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping of particles. Antibodies that show such reactions are called agglutinins. Agglutination reactions work on the principle of cross-linking of the polyvalent antigens. Following are the advantages of agglutination reactions:  easy to perform  require no expensive equipment, and  detects … Continue reading Agglutination Reactions


Synonym: Localized Anaphylaxis  Introduction: Atopy is defined as the tendency of an individual to produce IgE antibodies in response to various environmental antigens and thus develop strong immediate hypersensitivity (allergic) responses. Individuals with allergies to environmental antigens (e.g., pollen, house dust) are atopic.  Localized anaphylaxis involves reactions limited to a specific target tissue or organ and … Continue reading Atopy

Antigen presenting cells

Introduction The population of specialized cells:  to capture microbial and other antigens, display MHC complexes in association with these peptide fragments of protein antigens on its surface to lymphocytes, and provide signals that stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of the lymphocytes (co-stimulatory signal) are known as the antigen-presenting cells (APCs).  APCs are conventionally referred to … Continue reading Antigen presenting cells


Synonym: Programmed cell death Pronunciation: ah-poh-toh’-sis: Greek, (1) apo- away from and (2) ptosis, a falling or dropping  ‘Apoptosis’ has been derived from a Greek word that describes the falling of the leaves from a tree or petals from a flower. This term was coined to differentiate this form of programmed cell death from the … Continue reading Apoptosis


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