History of Microbiology


Louis Pasteur

  • He was a French microbiologist.
  • He Known for his work in the field of Microbial fermentation, vaccination, and pasteurization

 Born– 27 December 1822

Died– 28 December 1895

Award’s

  • Legion of Honor Grand Cross (1881)
  • Rumford Medal (1856)
  • Foreign members of the Royal society (1869)
  • Copley Medal (1874)
  • Albert Medal (1882)
  • Leeuwenhoek Medal (1895)

Contribution:

  • He was one of the leading microbiologist during the golden age of microbiology(1860-1910) .
  •  He is considered as the father of modern microbiology.
  • Pasteur was a French microbiologist gave the theory of Bio-genesis is most powerful of spontaneous generation, using swan neck flask experiment his work on the subject was published in 1861 as  memory of the organised bodies which exist in the atmosphere.
  • He gave  Microbial theory of fermentation in 1857.
  • He observed the fermentation of lactic acid from sugar by several different kind of yeast, bacteria and noticed microscopic globules in the very deposit of fermentation vessels, when these globules was transferred to a fresh nutrient consisting sugar yeast extract, the globule greatly lactic acid was formed.
  •  In 1867 Pasteur, was suggested that mild heating at 62.8°C  for 30 minutes rather that boiling was enough to destroy or kills the undesirable microorganisms without ruining the  taste of product, this process was referred as Pasteurization.
  • Pasteur developed Anthrax vaccine in 1881 5 years later, he was successful in preparing vaccine against Rabies.
  • Pasteur work seems to be demonstrate that microbes may  be cause of diseases or if they  may spoil the wine, perhaps they may also makes the body sick. This developed the germ theory of disease.

ROBERT KOCH   

Full name: Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch.

Born: 11 December 1843.

Died: 27 May 1910.

Discoveries:

  • Koch’s postulates.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Asiatic cholera.
  • Anthrax bacterium.

Awards:

  • For MemRS [1897].
  • Nobel Prize in medicine [1905].
  • The first direct demonstration of the role of bacteria is causing disease was provided by Robert Koch.
  • A German physician who first of all isolated Anthrax bacillus [i.e. Bacillus anthracic] the cause of anthrax in 1876.
  • In 1882 he discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • The most notable contribution of was the establishment of the casual relationship between the microorganism and a specific disease by applying a set of criteria referred to as Koch’s postulates.
  • Koch’s postulates published in 1884 and are the cornerstone of germ theory of disease and are still in use today to prove the Etiology [specific cause] of an infection disease.5
  • The postulates are : –
  • The suspected microorganisms must always be found in diseased but never in healthy individuals.
  •  The microorganism must be isolated in a pure or nutrient medium.
  •  The same disease must result when the isolated microorganisms is inoculated into a healthy host.
  •  The same organism must be re-inoculated from the experimentally infected host.
  •  Also demonstrated Vibrio Cholera that is the causing agent of the disease Cholera in 1883.

ANTONIE VAN LEEUWENHOEK   

Full name: Antoine Philips Van Leeuwenhoek.

Born: 24 October 1632.

Died: 26 August 1723.

Subject of study:

  • Bacteria
  •  Protozoa,
  • Microscope,
  •  red blood cell,
  • weevil.
  • He  was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa.
  • Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to experiment by using single lens microscope of his own design with microbes, which he originally referred to as ANIMALCULES.
  • He is commonly known as the father of Microbiology [Ancient].
  • He assembled simple microscope in 1674 and made more than 500 optical lenses. He also made at least 25- single lens microscope of different types out of which only nine survived.
  • He was also examined the blood and other tissues of human including his own tooth scrapping, minerals and plant materials.
  • Leeuwenhoek was the first person to give precise and accurate description of bacteria and protozoa using microscope ,he made himself because of this extraordinary contribution to microbiology. He is referred as the Father of Bacteriology and Protozoology.

Main Discoveries:

  • Infusoria in 1674
  • Bacteria [e.g. large Selenomonas from the human mouth] in 1683.
  • The vacuole of the cell.
  • Spermatozoa in 1677.
  • The banded of Muscle of fibers in 1682. 


 

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