By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Introduction- Intellectual property rights (IPR) are designed to allow novel technologies to be available so that the scientist or company receives a reward for the initiative established. Intellectual property possessions can be any codified knowledge, innovation, or anything of actual or potential economic value that has arisen from rudimentary research,Continue reading “PROTECTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS”


                                                                  By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Prions are a misfolded pathogenic form of proteins that have the ability to transfer its misfolded form to the normal shape of the same protein thereby, folding abnormally. The word “prions” was coined in 1982 by Stanley B. Prusiner and it is a derivative name from “proteinaceous infectious particle”.Continue reading “PRIONS”


                 By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) The Spemann-Mangold organizer are a consortium of cells that are required for the commencement of the neural tissue during the development of an amphibian embryo. Hilde Mangold, the then doctorate student along her mentor Hans Spemann, first published this work in 1924. This discovery gave so much scope to theContinue reading “SPEMANN-MANGOLD ORGANIZER”


BY: SHAILY SHAMA (MSIWM041) HISTORY: Throughout the course of modern human history, the source some viral infections such as smallpox, polio, and the Spanish flu have been quite unknown to humans. They have been diseases which have had deadly effects on humanity. All that was known about these diseases was that they spread via person-to-personContinue reading “INTRODUCTION TO VIRUSES”


BY: K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) The potential for spreading through drinking water is the emerging pathogenic bacteria of concern outlined here, but they do not correlate with the existence of E. Coli or with other measures of the consistency of drinking water widely used such as coliform bacteria. There are no satisfactory microbiological markers ofContinue reading “BACTERIAL WATERBRONE PATHOGENS”


BY: K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) For life, water is essential. There must be sufficient, stable, and usable supplies available to everyone. Improving access to clean drinking water will lead to substantial health benefits.  Most individuals fail to gain access to clean water. The supply of clean and filtered water to each house may be theContinue reading “MICROBIOLOGY OF WATER INDICATOR ORGANISMS”


BY: K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Introduction: The study of living microbes that are suspended in the air is known as Aero microbiology. Such microbes are known as bioaerosols. There are significantly fewer microorganisms in the atmosphere than in the oceans and in the soil; there are still many microorganisms that can impact the atmosphere. WithContinue reading “AERO MICROBIOLOGY”

Microbial growth and kinetics

BY- Reddy Sailaja M (MSIWM030) Microbial growth Microbial growth is defined as the increase in cell number (rather than cell size) by asexual reproduction process called, binary fission. Cell division results in the growth of the cells in the representative population. Bacteria and archea undergo asexual reproduction, while fungi and higher organisms also exhibit sexualContinue reading “Microbial growth and kinetics”


BY : K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) SOIL HABITATS: For microorganisms, soils are widespread and essential ecosystems that play crucial roles in providing plants with nutrients. If you dig a hole in the earth, you will find that the ground has a structure with various levels of evidence. These include the top organic horizon (O horizon),Continue reading “HABITATS (2)”


BY: K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) For a human being who is 890,000 times larger than an E.coli cell, it is difficult to think of microbial environments on the order of micrometres to thousands of meters. Conditions like oxygen or pH will drastically change over this time. It creates microenterprises, and ecosystems are therefore more patchyContinue reading “HABITATS (1)”