Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation

Submerged fermentation is a type of fermentation in which the microorganisms are suspended in a liquid medium. The liquid medium also contains various other nutrients and growth factors in the necessary proportions in a dissolved or a particulate solids form. The main application of submerged fermentation technique is in the extraction of metabolites (secondary metabolites)Continue reading “Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation”


Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in molecular and cellular biology. It is a technique that allows one to study and visualize the cellular structures and dynamics of tissues and organelles, and macromolecular assemblies inside the cell. It was devised in the early twentieth century by various scientists like Köhler, Lehmann, Reichert and others. TheContinue reading “FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY”


QUIZ ON VACCINE Que 1. Vaccine is prepared by      a. weakened microorganism              b. toxins         c. Surface protein                           d. all of the above Que 2. The term vaccine and vaccination are coined by-          a. Edward jenner                             b. Louis Pasture          c. Robert Koch                                    d. Alexander Fleming Que 3. VaccineContinue reading “Vaccine”


By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Plant hormone, also known as phytohormones are signal mediated molecules produced by plants commonly controlling plant growth aspects such as defense mechanisms, stress tolerance, metabolism, reproduction and size. Hormones are elated within the plant by utilizing four types of movements. For localized movement, cytoplasmic streams within cells where delayed diffusionContinue reading “PHYTOHORMONES”


                     By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Stem cells are a group of undifferentiated cells that will differentiate into various types cells and proliferate indefinitely. They originate from cell lineages. They exact opposite to the progenitor cells, which does not proliferate indefinitely. In mammal, typically about 50-150 cells combine to form the inner cell mass (ICM) duringContinue reading “STEM CELLS”


BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043) In the emerging field of science and technology, Biotechnology is Growing and Developing field, where new ideas and Experiments and research make this field unique and diversifying.  Biotechnology: The branch of science which uses technology with living system is biotechnology. Biotechnology uses modern system of modification of biological systems. ThereContinue reading “BIOTECHNOLOGY”


BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043) Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia which results in a lack of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both the conditions. Metabolic abnormalities are caused due to a low level of resistance to insulin. The effect of symptoms can be classified based on the type and duration of diabetes.Continue reading “DIABETES”


BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043) Cells circulating in body and part of immune system are known as lymphocytes. There are mainly two main types of lymphocytes, which includes B Cells and T cells.  Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte culture:  PBLC is a technique used in Cytogenetics used for karyotyping analysis. The most convenient method to study chromosomesContinue reading “LYMPHOCYTE CULTURE”


BY: SHAILY SHARMA (MSIWM041) Chromatography is a technique which is widely used for the separation of mixtures based on the physio-chemical differences between the stationary and the mobile phase of the chromatographic apparatus. The sample to be separated is dissolved in the mobile phase, which passes over the stationary phase (the immobile/fixed surface) and carriesContinue reading “AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY”


BY: SHAILY SHAMA (MSIWM041) HISTORY: Throughout the course of modern human history, the source some viral infections such as smallpox, polio, and the Spanish flu have been quite unknown to humans. They have been diseases which have had deadly effects on humanity. All that was known about these diseases was that they spread via person-to-personContinue reading “INTRODUCTION TO VIRUSES”