Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in molecular and cellular biology. It is a technique that allows one to study and visualize the cellular structures and dynamics of tissues and organelles, and macromolecular assemblies inside the cell. It was devised in the early twentieth century by various scientists like Köhler, Lehmann, Reichert and others. TheContinue reading “FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY”

Research methodology

By- Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan, ( MSIWM043 ) Research methodology: The method of conducting research, by formulating problems, finding objectives, presenting result is all the crucial steps in any research. Sources of data and population consideration, ethical values, sample determination, methods executing plays a vital role before undertaking the research proposal. Objectives Obtaining novel opinions andContinue reading “Research methodology”

UV-Visible Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy is an essential physical instrument that utilizes light in the electromagnetic spectrum’s ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges. The Beer-Lambert law is defined as a linear relationship between absorption, absorber concentration (or absorbing species) in the solution, and path length. Therefore, for a fixed path length, UV-Vis spectroscopyContinue reading “UV-Visible Spectroscopy”

X-Ray Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) X-ray spectroscopy is a tool that detects and analyses photons with wavelengths in the X-ray section of the electromagnetic spectrum or particles of light. It is used to help scientists understand an object’s chemical and elemental properties. Many distinct X-ray spectroscopy techniques are used in science and technology, including archaeology,Continue reading “X-Ray Spectroscopy”

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) It is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyses fluorescence from a sample. It is also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry. It requires the use of a light ray, usually, ultraviolet light, which excites the electrons of certain compounds in molecules and causes them to emit low-energy light, typically, butContinue reading “Fluorescence Spectroscopy”

Atomic absorption spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a method in analytical chemistry for determining the concentration of a specific metal element in a sample. The process can be used in a solution to analyze the concentration of over 70 different metals. While atomic absorption spectroscopy dates from the nineteenth century, a teamContinue reading “Atomic absorption spectroscopy”

Types Of Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Introduction: Absorption spectroscopy: Absorption spectroscopy is a technique that compares the power of a beam of light determined before and after a sample contact. It is also referred to as Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) when done with a tunable diode laser. To decrease the device’s noise, it isContinue reading “Types Of Spectroscopy”


BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Originally, spectroscopy studied the interaction between radiation and matter as a wavelength (λ) feature. Historically, spectroscopy has been applied to the use of visible light, e.g., by a prism, distributed according to its wavelength. The idea later extended to include any calculation of a quantity as a function of eitherContinue reading “Spectroscopy”

The Simple Microscope

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Principle :  A single lens, historically called a loupe, consists of a simple microscope. A reading or magnifying glass is the most familiar example nowadays. Higher-magnification lenses are often made of two glass elements that create a color-corrected image. They can be worn in a cylindrical shape around the neck,Continue reading “The Simple Microscope”


BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014)   The microscope is an instrument that creates enlarged photographs of small objects, enabling the viewer to display minute structures in a too near manner at a scale that is convenient for observation and study. Although optical microscopes are the focus of this article, many other types of wave, likeContinue reading “Microscope”