Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation

Submerged fermentation is a type of fermentation in which the microorganisms are suspended in a liquid medium. The liquid medium also contains various other nutrients and growth factors in the necessary proportions in a dissolved or a particulate solids form. The main application of submerged fermentation technique is in the extraction of metabolites (secondary metabolites)Continue reading “Citric acid production and applications of submerged fermentation”


Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in molecular and cellular biology. It is a technique that allows one to study and visualize the cellular structures and dynamics of tissues and organelles, and macromolecular assemblies inside the cell. It was devised in the early twentieth century by various scientists like Köhler, Lehmann, Reichert and others. TheContinue reading “FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY”


QUIZ ON VACCINE Que 1. Vaccine is prepared by      a. weakened microorganism              b. toxins         c. Surface protein                           d. all of the above Que 2. The term vaccine and vaccination are coined by-          a. Edward jenner                             b. Louis Pasture          c. Robert Koch                                    d. Alexander Fleming Que 3. VaccineContinue reading “Vaccine”


Introduction Inflammation is part of the complex biological reaction of the tissues of the body to harmful stimuli, such as bacteria, damaged cells or irritants, and is a defensive reaction involving immune cells, blood vessels and molecular mediators.  Inflammation has the purpose of removing the initial cause of cell injury, clearing necrotic cells and damagedContinue reading “Inflammation”

Research methodology

By- Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan, ( MSIWM043 ) Research methodology: The method of conducting research, by formulating problems, finding objectives, presenting result is all the crucial steps in any research. Sources of data and population consideration, ethical values, sample determination, methods executing plays a vital role before undertaking the research proposal. Objectives Obtaining novel opinions andContinue reading “Research methodology”


BY: SHAILY SHARMA (MSIWM041) Streptococcus pyogenes (which is also called group A streptococcus) is by far one of the most harmful and serious streptococcal pathogens of humans. It is a strict pathogen that inhabits the throat, nasopharynx and occasionally even the skin in humans.  Dissemination of the bacteria to other sites within the body causesContinue reading “PATHOGEN PROFILE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES”


By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Plant hormone, also known as phytohormones are signal mediated molecules produced by plants commonly controlling plant growth aspects such as defense mechanisms, stress tolerance, metabolism, reproduction and size. Hormones are elated within the plant by utilizing four types of movements. For localized movement, cytoplasmic streams within cells where delayed diffusionContinue reading “PHYTOHORMONES”


                     By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Stem cells are a group of undifferentiated cells that will differentiate into various types cells and proliferate indefinitely. They originate from cell lineages. They exact opposite to the progenitor cells, which does not proliferate indefinitely. In mammal, typically about 50-150 cells combine to form the inner cell mass (ICM) duringContinue reading “STEM CELLS”


BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043) In the emerging field of science and technology, Biotechnology is Growing and Developing field, where new ideas and Experiments and research make this field unique and diversifying.  Biotechnology: The branch of science which uses technology with living system is biotechnology. Biotechnology uses modern system of modification of biological systems. ThereContinue reading “BIOTECHNOLOGY”


BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043) Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia which results in a lack of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both the conditions. Metabolic abnormalities are caused due to a low level of resistance to insulin. The effect of symptoms can be classified based on the type and duration of diabetes.Continue reading “DIABETES”