BY: SREELAKSHMI (MSIWM011)

The lipid includes fats and oils, waxes, steroids and phospholipids. These molecules are less soluble in water but dissolve in solvents such as ether, chloroform, ethanol etc. Fats and oils are made from glycerol molecules and fatty acids Glycerol is a 3-carbon alcohol molecule. Fatty acids are made up of hydrocarbon chains of varying lengths with a methyl group on one side and a carboxylic acid group on the other. Fatty acids can be saturated or saturated. All the interactions between carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain are a single bond. These fatty acids are therefore full of hydrogen atoms. The saturated fat contains entirely saturated acids and is an animal fat.

Unsaturated fatty acids:

Unsaturated fatty acids are less saturated with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats contain unsweetened fatty acids and therefore contain a double layer of bonds. In general, the larger the number of bonds doubles, the lower the temperature at which the lipid dissolves. A large number of double bonds in vegetable oil make their liquid form. Polyunsaturated fats are considered good fats.

E.g., Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Linoleic acid.

Lipids classification:

1. Simple Lipids: Fatty acid esters contain a variety of alcohol. Also known as neutral oil

 Fats and oils are fatty acid esters containing glycerol. The chemical structure of fats (also known as triglyceride) consists of three different molecules of fatty acids secured by one glycerol molecule in its three hydroxyl groups.

Wax: Fatty acids esters have high alcohol content without glycerol.

2. Compound Lipids: Esters of fatty acids contain other groups in addition to alcohol and fatty acids. E.g., Phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins etc.

3. Derived lipids: Objects found in the above groups by hydrolysis. E.g., similar steroids

Properties of Lipids

The oil does not dissolve in water but is easily soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene etc. They melt easily in hot alcohol but melt slightly in the cold. They are the best solutions for other oils, fatty acids etc.

Hydrolysis of alkaline oils is called saponification. The products are glycerol and an alkaline salt of fatty acids called soap.

Number Purification Number: The amount of milligrams of KOH needed to infuse 1 gram of oil or oil.

Number Acid number: The amount of milligrams of KOH needed to reduce the free fatty acids of 1 gram of fat.

Number Iodine number: This is the amount (in grams) of iodine absorbed per 100 grams. This is a measure of fat storage.

 Hydrolysis of alkaline fats is called saponification. The products are glycerol and an alkaline salt of fatty acids called soap.

Purification Number: The amount of milligrams of KOH required to add one gram of oil or oil.

Acid Number: The amount of milligrams of KOH needed to reduce the free fatty acids of 1 gram of fat.

Iodine number: This is the amount (in grams) of iodine that is obtained per 100 grams. This is a measure of fat storage.

 Rancidity: Almost all natural oil is released into the air when exposed to air, light and moisture, especially when it is warm and unpleasant. This is due to the formation of peroxide in the double bonds of fatty acids. Vitamin E is an important natural antioxidant.

 Features of fatty acids:

Humidity:

Fatty acids do not dissolve well in water due to their unprocessed form (acid).They are very hydrophilic like potassium or sodium salt. Fatty acids are easily excreted by liquid chemicals that do not come from the solution or suspension by lowering the pH to form a free carboxyl group. On the other hand, increasing pH increases water solubility through the formation of alkaline iron salts, known as soaps. Soaps contain essential substances such as colloids and are effective agents for the face. Therefore, the actual melting of water, especially of long acids, is often more difficult to determine because it is highly influenced by pH, and also because fatty acids have a tendency, which leads to the formation of monolayers or micelles. The formation of micelles in aqueous solutions of lipids is associated with rapid changes in body composition in the concentration range of concentrations. The point of change is known as micelle concentration (CMC), and it shows a tendency for thicker lipids than to remain as single molecules.

Melting point

The effect of the formation of fatty acids on its soluble chains with branch chains and double bond will reduce the melting point compared to that of the full equivalent chain. In addition, the melting point of fatty acids depends on whether the chain is equal to or abnormal; the latter have very melting points.

Reduction

 Sufficient acids are very stable, while low fatty acids are affected by oxidation: double bonds, high inclination. Therefore, unsaturated fatty acids should be treated in the form of imported gases and kept away from oxidants and compounds that lead to the formation of free radicals. Antioxidants can be very important in preventing potential attacks on vivo acyl chains

Rancidity

Almost all natural oils are released into the air when exposed to air, light, and moisture, especially when warm and unpleasant. This is due to the formation of peroxide in the double bonds of fatty acids. Vitamin E is an important natural antioxidant.

Biological   Properties of Lipids

  • Emulsification: Amphipathic lipids are emulsifiers. In fact, the fats have to be emulsified before they can be absorbed by the intestinal wall, bile juice secreted from the liver helps in this process
  • Mechanical support: Lipids of connective tissue of internal organs, protect them eventual damage on exposure to mechanical action.
  • Dissolving capacity: Under physiological conditions, certain lipids function as solvents to dissolve other lipids.
  • Hormones: The major group of hormones is formed of steroids. They regulate a large variety of physiological functions.
  • Enzyme activation: Lipids are essential for the activation of enzymes
  • Vitamins: Vitamin-D (calciferol) is a steroid derivative.
  • Solubility of Vitamins: Lipids are carriers of natural fat soluble vitamins such as A. D and E


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