BY: SREELAKSHMI (MSIWM012)

Minerals are the chemical elements used by the body to maintain certain physicochemical processes that are essential for health. Although they do not provide energy, they have important roles to play in many bodily functions. This should be provided in the diet and varies from grams to micrograms per day in large and small items respectively. Minerals can be divided into two groups-Macro minerals – including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Also those only needed in small amounts (trace element / micronutrients) – including iron, zinc, selenium, chromium, copper, manganese, iodine and fluoride. Minerals are substances found in food that our bodies need to grow and be healthy.

 Major Functions:

• Building strong bones and teeth

• Control of bodily processes, especially the nervous system

• A major component of body fluids and cells

• Form part of the enzymes and other proteins needed for energy production

• Minerals are found in foods such as meat, cereals (including whole grain products such as bread), fish, milk, and dairy products, vegetables, fruits (especially dried fruit) and nuts.

CALCIUM

Calcium (Ca) is a key component of bones and teeth and has important physiological functions in the body. It plays a role in blood clotting, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve transfer and the availability of cell fluids. Calcium deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis arthritis where strength and bone are affected.

 Health Benefits of Calcium

High urinary oxalate levels are a risk factor for calcium oxalate formation. Adequate calcium intake by diet can reduce the absorption of edible oxalate and low-grade oxalate by the formation of unresolved calcium oxalate salts. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common bowel cancer. Prospective study of the group has consistently reported a correlation between milk consumption and CRC risk. Cultural and cell culture studies have suggested sensible mechanisms that play a role in calcium, a major nutrient in dairy products, in preventing CRC.Adequate calcium intake can protect against lead poisoning. Increased calcium intake is known to reduce lead depletion. Adequate calcium intake also prevents arterial stimulation from the bones during weight loss. High calcium diets, which are often associated with the use of dairy products, are closely related to body weight and obesity in many separate studies. Weight loss and fat loss are significantly reduced by a high-calorie diet compared to a regular diet. The results suggested that while calcium intake may play a role in weight control, in addition to the benefits derived from other components of dairy products (proteins, fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids).Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) refers to a set of symptoms, including but not limited to fatigue, irritability, mood / depression, fluid retention, and breast tenderness, which begin sometime after ovulation (mid-cycle) and decrease the onset of menstruation. Low calcium intake has been linked to PMS in early reports, and more calcium has been shown to reduce symptoms. The data currently available indicate that daily intake of calcium from diet and / or supplements may have therapeutic benefits for women diagnosed with PMS.

PHOSPHORUS

Phosphorus is concerned with many metabolic processes, including those that involve dehydration. It acts as part of bones, teeth, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphorylated metabolic intermediates and nucleic acid. Phosphate buffers are involved in the production of high-energy chemicals, i.e., ATP and are involved in the production of phospholipids and phosphoproteins.Phosphorus improves the health of the digestive system. Effectively stimulates the digestion of riboflavin and niacin. These vitamins also help to strengthen and improve the emotional and emotional response system. It helps to break down digestion, diarrhea, constipation, and, in general, stimulates the digestive system with normal, healthy bowel movements. Focus, memory, and mental performance may be enhanced with the use of phosphorus. Adequate nutrition ensures mental development. Phosphorus deficiency can lead to the onset of neurological disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s. It can also increase the risk of mental retardation.

IRON

Iron (Fe) is an important component of hemoglobin, a protein in the erythrocyte that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. As part of myoglobin, a protein that provides oxygen to muscles, iron supports metabolism. Iron is also needed for growth, growth, normal cell function, and the synthesis of other hormones and connective tissue. Iron is known to promote healthy pregnancy, increased energy and better performance in sports.

ZINC

Zinc (Zn) is a trace element, essential for the formation and function of many macromolecules, including enzymes that regulate cellular processes and cell identification pathways. Minerals regulate the immune response and show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Zinc maintains oxidative processes for a long time by reducing the expression of metallothioneins. These rich cysteine-rich proteins do the job of maintaining zinc-related homeostasis and act as powerful electrophilic supplements and cytoprotective agents

Health Benefits Zinc

 Zinc increases the activity of protein antioxidants and enzymes, such as glutathione and catalase. On the other hand, zinc exerts its antioxidant effect through two acute mechanisms, one of which is the stabilization of the oxidation-resistant sulfhydryls.The second machine consists of a metal resistor that is activated which is reduced. Zinc can replace redox metals, such as copper and iron, in certain binding areas and reduce site-specific oxidative damage. Zinc attracts expression from the brain from a neurotropic factor (BDNF). Clinical studies have shown serum hypozincemia in depression, which was a common practice in effective depressive therapy. Record the benefits of zinc supplementation in antidepressant therapy in the treatment of resistant and resistant patients. Therefore, zinc homeostasis is important in psychopathology and in the treatment of depression. The treatment of zinc headaches appears to be better than oral treatment due to its action in reducing high infection and necrotic material through improved local immunity, collagen lytic activity and continuous extraction of zinc ions that reactivate wounds in normal normozincemic individuals.

COPPER

Copper (Cu) is required for hematologic and neurologic systems. It is a combination of several enzymes and proteins, most of which promote oxidation-reducing reactions. It is necessary for bone growth and formation, the formation of myelin sheaths in the nervous system, aids in the synthesis of iron in hemoglobin, aids in the absorption of iron from the intestinal tract (GIT) and the transport of iron from plasma tissues. Cu seems to influence genetic expression by committing itself to certain aspects of writing. Cu is widely known to stimulate the brain. Cu-rich foods are often classified as ‘Brain Foods’. Research has shown a direct link between its content within the brain and creative thinking, which shows that it makes neural pathways grow in different ways. A powerful antioxidant that acts in front of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase to protect the cell membrane from free radicals of various organs. Some studies have been performed on the effects of aging, wrinkles, macular degeneration, and kidney failure. Adequate Cu in the diet prevents premature aging. Studies have shown that Cu can destroy or inhibit E.coli growth. Cu can lower LDL cholesterol levels and help increase HDL. This reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke. The immune system needs copper to perform several functions, the least known of which is a direct function. Some recent studies have shown that interleukin 2 is reduced in copper deficiency and may be the means by which T cell proliferation is reduced.

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