BY: Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohanan (MSIWM043)
A biological safety cabinet is an enclosed but ventilated workspace. It is mostly used while working with contaminated pathogens. There are many levels in BSC, depending on the contaminants. There are mainly three states of protections
- Personal protection
- Product protection
- Environment protection
There are three classes for BSC based on containment capabilities
- Class 1 cabinet: This is used to provide personal as well as environment protection. Biological agents should be of low to moderate risk. BSL 1,2 and 3
- Class 2 cabinets: This is used to provide personnel, environment as well as product protection. Biological agents should be of low to moderate risk. BSL 1,2 and 3
- Class 3 cabinet: Also known as glove box. This is used to provide personnel, environment as well as product protection .BSL 4(highly infectious agents).
BSL are standard level defined by Biosafety in Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), Which mainly measures the protection needed in a laboratory setting to protect workers, environment and public. Biological risk assessment (BRA) is used to conduct each experimental protocol. BRA are assessments which mainly used to evaluate the following The infectious or toxins transmitted and can cause disease.Availability of medical treatmentsHealth checkup and training of lab employees
The main requirement for any given Biosafety level are Laboratory designPPE (Personnel protective equipment)Biosafety equipment
There are mainly 4 BSL
Biosafety Level 1: BSL1 is used for those infectious agents which is mainly not considered for causing health risk to healthy individuals. The procedures followed are mainly under the category of Standard Microbiological practices (SMP). There comes no specific requirement of special equipment or design features. The main necessities are cleaned surfaces, withstanding basic chemicals etc.
Biosafety Level 2: BSL2 focus on study of moderate risk infectious agents. The risk of getting infectious may be due to accidental inhalation, swallowing, exposed to cut skin etc. The specific requirement such as hand washing sinks, eye washing, automatic door and lock. There is basic requirement of equipment which can decontaminate lab waste, incinerator, and autoclave.
Biosafety Level 3: BSL 3 mainly focus on infectious agents which can be potentially lethal, when accidentally inhaled or exposed. For any research studies with biological agents whose spread can be lethal, BSL 3 is used. The controlled airflow or sealed enclosures are important for such agents. Easy decontamination, directional airflow, two self-closing or interlocked, doors, sealed windows, properly sealed wall surfaces, filtered ventilation etc. are basic necessities under the category of BSL2. There is basic requirement of equipment which can decontaminate lab waste, incinerator, and autoclave.
Biosafety Level 4: BSL 4 mainly focus on those agents which have high risk of aerosol transmission an may be life threatening disease, having no vaccines or therapy developed till date. It includes all BSL 3 features, along with it should be developed in an isolated zone. Significant training should be provided for the workers. Careful and controlled access. There are mainly two types of BSL4