Introduction: Aminoglycosides comprise a complex group of drugs derived from soil Actinomycetes in the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora that impairs ribosome function and has antibiotic potential.  Examples includes Streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and, amikacin. Mode of Action: This complex group of drugs inserts itself on sites on the 30S ribosomal subunit of the prokaryotes and causesContinue reading “Aminoglycosides”

Enzyme Inhibition

BY- Ezhuthachan Mithu Mohan (MSIWM043) Enzyme Inhibitor: Enzyme inhibitor decreases the rate of reaction by binding to the substrate or decreasing the turnover number. It can be organic or inorganic.  The process which decreases the rate of reaction, by either binding to enzymes or making configurationally changes is known as enzyme inhibition. Allosteric Inhibition: WhenContinue reading “Enzyme Inhibition”


 By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042)         AIM– To isolate the DNA from a plant sample THEORY– Plant extractions for DNA is considered one of the tedious methods for high quality DNA isolations. Unlike animal tissues, which have the same tissue type in different species, plant tissues structural biomolecules and metabolites keep changing.Continue reading “PLANT DNA EXTRACTION PRACTICAL PROTOCOL”


  BY- Shaily Sharma (MSIWM041) INTRODUCTION: -Submerged fermentation is a type of fermentation in which the microorganisms are suspended in a liquid medium. The liquid medium also contains various other nutrients and growth factors in the necessary proportions in a dissolved or a particulate solids form. -Submerged fermentation is a technique in which the overallContinue reading “SUBMERGED FERMENTATION”


 By: N. Shreya Mohan (MSIWM042) Introduction- Intellectual property rights (IPR) are designed to allow novel technologies to be available so that the scientist or company receives a reward for the initiative established. Intellectual property possessions can be any codified knowledge, innovation, or anything of actual or potential economic value that has arisen from rudimentary research,Continue reading “PROTECTION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS”

UV-Visible Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy is an essential physical instrument that utilizes light in the electromagnetic spectrum’s ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges. The Beer-Lambert law is defined as a linear relationship between absorption, absorber concentration (or absorbing species) in the solution, and path length. Therefore, for a fixed path length, UV-Vis spectroscopyContinue reading “UV-Visible Spectroscopy”

X-Ray Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) X-ray spectroscopy is a tool that detects and analyses photons with wavelengths in the X-ray section of the electromagnetic spectrum or particles of light. It is used to help scientists understand an object’s chemical and elemental properties. Many distinct X-ray spectroscopy techniques are used in science and technology, including archaeology,Continue reading “X-Ray Spectroscopy”

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) It is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyses fluorescence from a sample. It is also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry. It requires the use of a light ray, usually, ultraviolet light, which excites the electrons of certain compounds in molecules and causes them to emit low-energy light, typically, butContinue reading “Fluorescence Spectroscopy”

Atomic absorption spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a method in analytical chemistry for determining the concentration of a specific metal element in a sample. The process can be used in a solution to analyze the concentration of over 70 different metals. While atomic absorption spectroscopy dates from the nineteenth century, a teamContinue reading “Atomic absorption spectroscopy”

Types Of Spectroscopy

BY- K. Sai Manogna (MSIWM014) Introduction: Absorption spectroscopy: Absorption spectroscopy is a technique that compares the power of a beam of light determined before and after a sample contact. It is also referred to as Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) when done with a tunable diode laser. To decrease the device’s noise, it isContinue reading “Types Of Spectroscopy”